# Solutions for Class 12 Physics Subject

## CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics Subject chapters

• Introduction to NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Physics is certainly a complicated branch of science. However, NCERT Solutions makes this subject pretty easy. Most noteworthy, these solutions clear all fundamental...

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• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic...

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• Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power,...

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• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving...

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• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic...

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• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

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• Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

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• Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including...

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• Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula....

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• Wave front: It is the continuous locus of all such particles of the medium which are vibrating in the same phase of oscillation at any instant.Depending upon the shape of the source of light, wavefront are of different shapes.(i) Plane...

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• Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental...

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• Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.5

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• Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its...

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• Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only). Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and...

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• Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite...

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## ISC Solutions for Class 12 Physics Subject chapters

• Electric Potential at a point is the work done per unit charge in bringing a charge from infinity to that point. Electric potential is the scalar quantity and its unit is volt (V). Mathematically, it can also be represented as the ratio of...
• An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma)....
• A magnetic field is produced in the surrounding of any current carrying conductor. The strength of magnetic field is called one tesla, if a charge of one coulomb, when moving with a velocity of 1 ms-1 along a direction perpendicular to the...
• When there is a changing magnetic field around a closed circuit, as shown in the animation, an electric current is induced in the circuit. This phenomenon is known as Electromagnetic Induction. The greater the rate of change in magnetic field,...
• In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio waves,...
• Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible,...
• In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes: electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, microwaves, visible light, x-rays, and...
• Atoms, Nuclei, Elements and Isotopes. Atoms are made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.
• (i) Energy bands in solids; energy band diagrams for distinction between conductors, insulators and semi-conductors - intrinsic and extrinsic; electrons and holes in semiconductors. (ii) Junction diode; depletion region; forward and reverse...
• In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation...
• Change of voltage and current with time, phase; peak and rms values of voltage and current; their relation in sinusoidal case.Variation of voltage and current in a.c. circuits consisting of only a resistor, only an inductor and only a capacitor...
• The nucleus is a collection of particles called protons, which are positively charged, and neutrons, which are electrically neutral.
• (i) Nuclear fission; chain reaction; principle of operation of a nuclear reactor. (ii) Nuclear fusion; thermonuclear fusion as the source of the sun's energy.

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